PineBotanical Name: Various Species
Family: N.O. Pinaceae
(Pinus sylvestris Pines are among the most important commercial trees. Most of them have straight, unbranched, cylindrical trunks, which furnish large amounts of excellent saw timber. On account of the straight grain, strength, and other qualities of pine timber, it is used for nearly every sort of constructional work and the trade in it is enormous.
All the Pines yield resin in greater or smaller quantities, which is obtained by tapping the trees. The crude resin is almost entirely used for the distillation of Oil of Turpentine and Rosin, only small quantities being employed medicinally - for ointments, plasters, etc. When the Oil of Turpentine is entirely distilled off, the residuum is Rosin or Colophony, but when only part of the oil is extracted, the viscous mass remaining is known commercially as common Crude Turpentine.
Oil of Turpentine is a good solvent for many resins, wax, fats, caoutchouc, sulphur, and phosphorus, and is largely employed in making varnish, in oil-painting, etc. Medicinally, it is much employed in both general and veterinary practice as a rubefacient and vesicant, and is valuable as an antiseptic. It is used for horses and cattle internally as a vermifuge, and externally as a stimulant for rheumatic swellings, and for sprains and bruises, and to kill parasites.
Rosin is used not only by violinists, for rubbing their bows, but also in making sealing wax, varnish, and resinous soaps for sizing paper and papier maché and dressing hemp cordage, but one of its special uses is for making brewer's pitch for coating the insides of beer casks and for distilling resinous oils, when the pitch used by shoemakers is left as residuum. Pitch is also used in veterinary practice.
Tar is an impure turpentine, viscid and brown-black in colour, procured by destructive distillation from the roots of various coniferous trees, particularly from Pinus sylvestris. Tar is used medicinally, especially in veterinary practice, for its antiseptic, stimulant, diuretic and diaphoretic action. Tar-water is given to horses with chronic cough and used internally and externally as a cutaneous stimulant and antiseptic in eczema. Oil of Tar is used instead of Oil of Turpentine in the case of mange, etc.
A considerable industry has grown up in the United States in the distillation of Pine wood by means of steam under pressure. One of the products thus obtained, which has considerable commercial importance, is known as Pine Oil. It has a pleasant odour, resembling that of caraway or Juniper Oil, and has been largely used for making paints which dry without gloss and as a 'flatting' material. It flows well under the brush and is a powerful solvent, and is useful for emulsion paints such as are now employed for inside work.
Pine resins are largely employed by the soap-maker for the manufacture of brown soaps.
The trade in resins was for many years almost exclusively a French industry, and only in France were the Pine forests turned to account for the production of resin on a commercial scale. Now, however, Switzerland, Sweden, Russia and North America furnish quantities, though, from the point of view of quality, the Pines which flourish near Bordeaux furnish a resin still much in request, and the turpentine extracted therefrom is abundant and one of the best qualities produced.
Medicinal Action and Properties: Rubefacient, diuretic, irritant. A valuable remedy in bladder, kidney, and rheumatic affections and diseases of the mucous membrane and respiratory complaints; externally in the form of liniment plasters and inhalants.
Preparations and Dosages: Oil of Turpentine. Spirits of Turpentine, B.P., 2 to 10drops As a vermifuge, 2 to 4 drachms. Tar, B.P., Pin. Sylv. Tar, U.S.P., Pin. Palust. Ointment Tar, B.P. Syrup Tar, U.S.P., 1 drachm.
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SPECIES OF PINES HAVING MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
Pinus balsamea. Abies canadensis. A. balsamea. Balsam Fir. Balm of Gilead Fir. Perusse. Hemlock Spruce.
P. Canadensis. A. canadensis. Hemlock Spruce.
P. Cedrus of Mount Lebanon.
P. Cembra (Siberian Cedar or Tannenbaum). Europe and Asia.
P. Cubensis. Cuban Pine.
P. Damaris. Agathis Damara.
P. Densiflora. Japan.
P. Echinata. Short-leaved Pine.
P. Gerardiana. Neosa Pine. N.W. India.
P. Halepensis. Mediterranean countries.
P. Heterophylla. Eastern America.
P. Khasya. Burma.
P. Larix. Larix Europaea. A. larix. L. decidua. Larch.
P. Maritima. P. pinaster. Cluster Pine. Mediterranean countries.
P. Merkusii. Burma.
P. Microcarpa. P. pendula. L. Americana. Black or American Larch. Hackmatack. Tamarac.
P. Mughus. Hungarian terebinth.
P. Nigra. Pieca Mariana. Black or Bog Spruce.
P. Palustris. P. Australia. Long-leaved Pine. Yellow, Southern, Hard, Virginia.
P. Picea. A. pectinata. Picea vulgaris. P. abies. A. vulgaris. A. alba. Spruce Fir. Norway Spruce.
P. Pinea. Mediterranean countries.
P. Ponderosa. Heavy Pine. California.
P. Pumilio. P. montana.
P. Rigida. Pitch Pine.
P. Roxburghii. Himalayas.
P. Sabiniana. Nut or Digger Pine.
P. Strobus. P. alba. White Pine.
P. Succinifera. Extinct.
P. Sylvestris. Scotch Pine or Fir. Norway Pine.
P. Toeda. Loblolly Pine. Old Field Pine. United States.
P. Teocoty. Mexican or Brea Turpentine.
P. Thunbergii. Japan.